By Moselio Schaechter (auth.), Kendric C. Smith (eds.)
The covalent attachment to deoxyribonucleic acid in vivo of a giant variety of sorts of chemicals (both general mobile elements akin to proteins and amino acids, and likewise exogenous compounds corresponding to medicinal drugs, cancer causing agents, and so on. ) were proven to exert profound results upon cells. 4 learn activi ties, previously thought of to be absolutely self reliant, relate to this challenge of nucleic acid adducts--(1) general covalent attachment of DNA to membranes, protein linkers in chromosomes, and so forth. ; (2) the jobs of radiation and chemical enhancement of DNA adduct formation in telephone killing and mutagenesis. (A similar box is using recognized cross-linking reactions to realize details on structural institutions in macromolecular complexes. ); (3) the relevance of DNA adducts to chemical and radiation carcinogenesis; (4) the rele vance of DNA adducts to the cross-linking idea of mobile getting older. (1) there are lots of examples of ordinary linkages among DNA and protein, e. g. , DNA-membrane attachment websites, protein linkers in chromosomes, amino acids covalently associated with DNA as a functionality of progress stipulations, and gene legislation by means of non-covalently sure proteins. A precis of knowledge on typical adducts to DNA therefore serves to introduce the topic of the radiation and chemical enhancement of DNA adduct formation. (2) some time past, radiation biology has been involved in general with attempting to comprehend the radiation chemistry of purified DNA, and the organic results and service of those radiation-induced changes whilst produced in mobile DNA.
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Extra resources for Aging, Carcinogenesis, and Radiation Biology: The Role of Nucleic Acid Addition Reactions
1* No. 2t No. 5t No. 3t No. 6* No. 4* Table 2. Amino Acid Residues in Several E. eoZi DNA 1 s Grown in Different Media (J'1 w )::o :z 0 -I 0 0 :z c::: 0 OJ (/) 0 ...... n )::o 0 :z )::o ::s:: ...... 36 M. E. BALIS 15T- was incubated in thymine-free medium. This organism has an obligate requirement for thymine and incubation in thymine-free media leads to cell death. Under these conditions of thymine starvation little net synthesis of DNA but considerable synthesis of protein can occur (Fig. 1).
T Value represents single unresolved aromatic peak. f ~g of total amino acids/100 mg DNA, calculated on the assumption that all these residues are involved in peptide linkages (From Salser and Balis, 1968). It was postulated that there are proteins or peptides covalently linked to termini of stretches of DNA and that these peptides serve as connectors and permit bending and folding and formation of the quaternary structure of chromosomes. It was suggested that these covalently attached proteins are cross-linked by disulfide bonds.
1975, Length distributions of singlestranded DNA in Chinese hamster ovary cells, J. Mol. Biol. 93:181-201. , 1968, On the mechanism of DNA replication in mammalian chromosomes, J. Mol. Biol. 32:327-341. , 1973, Chromosome-sized DNA molecules from drosophila~ Chromosoma (Berl) 41:1-27. , 1957, A new method for the isolation of deoxyribonucleic acids: evidence on the nature of bonds between deoxyribonucleic acid and protein, Biochem. J. 66:495-504. , 1958, Preparation of some deoxyribonucleic acid-protein complexes from rat-liver homogenates, Biochem.