By Ernest J. Henley, Jeffery Lewins
Advances in Nuclear technology and expertise, quantity 7 offers info pertinent to the basic elements of nuclear technology and expertise. This publication discusses the secure and worthwhile improvement of land-based nuclear energy plants.
Organized into 5 chapters, this quantity starts off with an outline of irradiation-induced void swelling in austenitic stainless steels. this article then examines the significance of assorted delivery tactics for fission product redistribution, which will depend on the diffusion facts, the vaporization homes, and the solubility within the gas matrix. different chapters reflect on the integro-differential kind of the linear delivery equation, which kinds the foundation for the examine of neutron distributions. This booklet discusses in addition the W–H approach and its relevance in delivery thought. the ultimate bankruptcy offers with nuclear reactor defense and describes the procedure in fighting thermal explosions.
This ebook is a important source for thermal reactor physicists, commercial engineers, theoreticians, scientists, and learn staff.
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Additional info for Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology: v. 7
The water vapor provides the hydrogen necessary for void formation, and oxidation of the surface produces additional vacancies. In some cases the amount of dissolved hydrogen is sufficiently large that loops are prismatically punched from the voids due to high internal pressures (62). Again, internally trapped H 2 0 is probably responsible, as is indicated from electrodiffusion studies (86). Hydrogen effects on void formation are also evident from ion-bombard ment studies. Nelson and Mazey (67) bombarded 316 stainless steel with pro tons and observed a definite change in the size and density of voids when the hydrogen content was exceeded by 100% of normal.
5 x 1 0 2 n / c m the 10 % cold-worked material had both slightly smaller void diameters and a void concentration that was about 5 % of that expected for solutiontreated material. The cold-worked-and-aged material exhibited an amount of swelling equivalent to solution-treated material, indicating that the irradia tion of cold-worked material above 700 ° C would remove its initial swelling resistance due to cold-work recovery. This caution is reinforced by isothermal recovery and recrystallization data for unirradiated, 2 0 % cold-worked 316 stainless steel (47) that show the onset of recrystallization at 760 ° C in about lOOOh and the occurrence of significant cold-work recovery at 650 ° C within this same time span.
Nevertheless, the vast amount of useful information already pro vided by these methods gives confidence in their use for qualitative compari sons and fundamental studies. The most extensively used nonnuclear method for inducing void swelling in stainless steel and other metals is ion bombardment. 2 MeV protons (67, 68), 2+ 2+ 2+ 5 MeV N i ions (40, 69), 20 MeV C ions (55), and 5 MeV C u ions (57). A variety of other ion beams have also been used to investigate void forma tion in other metals and alloys.