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Extra info for A History of Indian Philosophy, Vol. I.-V
Thus we find that in the pre-U pani~ad Vedic literature atman probably was first used to denote" vital breath" in man, then the self of the world, and then the self in man. It is from this last stage that we find the traces of a growing tendency to looking at the self of man as the omnipresent supreme principle of the universe, the knowledge of which makes a man sinless and pure. Conclusion. ythology, p. 166 and R. V. VIII. 89. R. I. 164. 4 and Deussen's article on Atman in Encyclopaedia Ethics.
It created the gods; and, having created the gods, it made them ascend these worlds: Agni this (terrestrial) world, Vayu the air, and Siirya the sky.... Then the Brahman itself went up to the sphere beyond. ' It then descended again by means of these two, Form and N arne. Whatever has a name, that is name; and that again which has no name and which one knows by its form, ' this is (of a certain) form,' that is form : as far as there are Form and Name so far, indeed, extends this (universe). a and Pral)a 1 2 8 See The Ri'gveda, by Kacgi, p.
Yak as and the U pani~ads. The meaning in many of these seems to be midway between 1 8 2 Keith's Translation of Aitareya Arm;tyaka. Ait. AraQ. JI. 1-3. llillcbrandt's article on :Brahman, E. R. E. A ra1Jyakas a1ld the Upanz~ads 37 "magical force" and "great," transition between which is rather easy. ;iads people are thinking of meditating upon this great force "Brahman" as being identified with diverse symbols, natural objects, parts and functions of the body. \Vhen the main interest of sacrifice was transferred from its actual performance in the external world to certain forms of meditation, we find that the understanding of particular allegories of sacrifice having a relation to particular kinds of bodily functions was regarded as Brahman, without a knowledge of which nothing could be obtained.