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Download 20.Electron Devices by John G. Webster (Editor) PDF

By John G. Webster (Editor)

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9. W. , 2: 35–67, 1961. 10. G. A. Baraff, Distribution functions and ionization rates for hot electrons in semiconductors, Phys. , 128: 2507–2517, 1962. 11. S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, New York: Wiley, 1981. 12. G. Chynoweth, Ionization rates for electrons and holes in silicon, Phys. , 109: 1537–1540, 1958. 13. B. K. Ridley, Lucky-drift mechanism for impact ionisation in semiconductors, J. Phys. , 16: 3373–3388, 1983. 14. J. S. , 30: 125–132, 1987. 15. F. Capasso, Physics of avalanche photodiodes, Semicond.

The results of Baraff ’s (10) numerical calculation of ionization coefficient plotted as universal curves on normalized axes. The ionization coefficient is normalized by the mean free path ␭, and the electric field E is normalized by Ei / ␭. The parameter is Eo /Ei. Since avalanche diodes must work over a range of temperatures, it is important to understand what happens to the ionization coefficients as the temperature is varied. At higher temperatures, the increased density of phonons shortens the mean free path, requiring a higher electric field to achieve the same ionization probability.

Equation (11) is a straight line that provides an excellent approximation for gains above 2. The dotted curve shows the same diode with a small nonuniformity as described in the text. implemented. A better approach that requires only a single loop is to start with the differential equation for the electron current, Eq. (7), and numerically integrate in the direction opposite to the current flow (21). As a boundary condition, Jn and JT can be set to unity at the n side of the diode, yielding an electron current of 1/Mn at the p depletion edge.

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